Side Effects of Pradaxa

Pradaxa (dabigatran) prevents the blood from clotting inside the blood stream, which can block the flow of blood. This is one way for a person to get a stroke, which is why it is widely prescribed for people with a high risk of stroke, including those with atrial fibrillation or a previous history of stroke.

However, because the main role of Pradaxa is to keep the blood flowing, that is also the cause of its most deadly side effect: hemorrhaging. There is no known way to reverse the effects of Pradaxa in the event of a major bleeding, unlike warfarin, in which a dose of Vitamin K will do the trick.

Patients with renal problems may not be prescribed with Pradaxa. According to the National Injury Law Center website this is because Pradaxa passes through the kidney, and an impaired kidney would not be able to reduce the effect of the drug as much as a regularly-functioning one. This could also be a cause of excessive bleeding.

Studies show that Pradaxa has a lower risk of intracranial bleeding than warfarin, but has a higher risk for gastrointestinal problems, including bleeding and upsets, as well as other extra-cranial hemorrhaging. Pradaxa patients can literally bleed to death, and cessation of taking the drug only partially solves the problem. Symptoms that may indicate an adverse reaction to the drug includes easy bruising, prolonged bleeding from wounds, gums and nosebleeds, dizziness, fainting, bloody stool or vomit, and persistent weakness. It is advisable for Pradaxa patients to inform their physician about the presence of these symptoms.

There are many cases against Pradaxa manufacturer Boehringer Ingelheim currently being handled in multidistrict litigation in the Southern District in Illinois. If you have already suffered serious injury from taking Pradaxa, there may still be time to join the fray and get compensation. Contact a lawyer knowledgeable about MDLs and in dealing with drug companies and get a free assessment of your case.

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Statistics on Air Traffic Controller Error

Air traffic controllers are often depicted as steely-eyed, impassive individuals in perfect control of the giant metal birds hovering in the air space under their jurisdiction. In reality, that is exactly what an air traffic controller, also known simply as a controller, has to be to do the job.

The main function of a controller is to keep the air traffic flowing smoothly, safely, and in an orderly manner. They are required to constantly make crucial and quick decisions based on a specialized set of skills, knowledge and abilities. Controllers have to be constantly on their toes the whole time they are “on position”, which is aviation-ese for on duty. Because it is regarded as one of the most stressful and mind-challenging occupations in the world, controllers often enjoy high salaries and a lot of leeway on how they accomplish their tasks.

However, controllers are still human, with all the attendant frailties, and they can make mistakes. Because they play such a crucial role in aviation safety, a serious air traffic controller error often ends in catastrophe. But controller errors happen very rarely after all. Or do they?

Perhaps understandably, the number of controller errors are said to be underreported. Nothing undermines a person’s confidence in flying more than knowing that the eye on the sky blinks with uncomfortable frequency. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) reported more than 4,000 controller errors in 2012. This was out of 132 million flights, and 1,271 of those were considered serious, 41 as high-risk and 7 potentially catastrophic. Not really large numbers compared to the number of error-free flights, but even just one that results in an on-air collision can significantly affect thousands of lives.

When an air traffic controller error due to negligence such as intoxication causes injury or death, the controller and perhaps the FAA may be found liable for it. But because the FAA is a federal agency, there are special rules that apply to a civil lawsuit. Consult with a personal injury or wrongful death attorney experienced in handling cases concerning air traffic controller error.

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The Means Test

As a result of the amendments to the United States Bankruptcy code in 2005, debtors filing for bankruptcy must now meet new qualifications in order to be eligible for bankruptcy. Since it is designed for people in severe financial situations, chapters 7 and 13 bankruptcy requires candidates to take a “Means Test” in order to measure the extent of their need. The test evaluates whether or not the applicant earns under the median income of the state in which they live, the applicant’s monthly expenses, and disposable income that the debtor has at the time of application.

The means test exists primarily to prevent wealthy debtors from abusing the system in order to more easily exterminate their debts. So, if a debtor’s income exceeds the state median income, they are subject to taking the financial evaluation. However, debtors that earn less than the state income are not required to take the means test. On average, across the 50 United States, the average annual median income is around $40,000. In addition to bankruptcy evaluation purposes, the means test is also used when distributing benefits to citizens who use Medicare.

Along with bankruptcy, the means test is commonly associated with negative ideas. The concept of bankruptcy and need-based government assistance is rarely a glamorous idea, however filing for bankruptcy often makes the difference between succumbing to debts and paying debts off. Though initially the debtor’s credit will suffer, assets will be liquidated, and payment plans will be strict, the end result of filing for bankruptcy can be extremely financially beneficial. Some additional controversy exists as far as the means test is concerned, claiming that debtors in more dire financial situations put a strain on the gains of wealthier society members.

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What is a Root Canal?

Root canal therapy is a dental treatment specifically for the pulp of a tooth that has been infected, is inflamed or has died. A procedure that is used to treat the nerves of the tooth, the proper medical term for it is root canal treatment or endodontic treatment. A general dentist or endodontist (a dentist specializing in root canal treatments) can perform the treatment, although a dentist can refer a patient to an endodontist if the case is too complicated or if it is a follow-up procedure.

Most people may have a fear of going to the dentist, but getting a root canal therapy is necessary particularly if tooth decay threatens to permanently damage the pulp or if it has already done so. Other reasons to have root canal therapy are faulty crowns, a crack or chip on the tooth, or repeated oral procedures on the tooth. Pain and abscess are definite signs of infection, and should not be taken lightly.

On a root canal therapy, the dead pulp and infection and inflammation are removed. The area is then cleaned and disinfected to be filled and sealed with a permanent filling, either a crown or a rubber-like material called gutta-percha. It usually takes about one to three dental appointments to fully complete a root canal, depending on the condition of the tooth and personal circumstances.

Benefits can be plenty for a successful root canal therapy. It can help save the natural tooth, making it easier to chew, and can protect other teeth from too much wear or strain. It looks more natural, and you have saved yourself from infection and future tooth aches. However, be aware that there are risks that come with root canal therapy, namely that is can make the tooth more fragile and vulnerable to breaking, especially if it is not covered with a crown. All in all, proper dental hygiene is the best way to protect your teeth, and your overall health altogether.

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2010 Worst Explosions in US

There are some jobs that carry a certain amount of risk for explosions. This is true of chemical and mining industries, but many of these are preventable, especially in today’s stringent regulations and modern safety technology. And when an explosion occurs, it is not only those who signed up for it who suffer, but also people who live in the surrounding areas. The worst explosions in 2010 grimly illustrate how the failure of big companies to follow regulations can take a huge toll.

In April 5, 2010, twenty-nine miners working for Massey Energy lost their lives when the Upper Big Branch coal mine located in West Virginia exploded. Later investigation determined that the explosion was due to a dangerous accumulation of methane gas, which would have been prevented if proper ventilation had been maintained by the company. Massey Energy owner Alpha Natural Resources were found criminally liable for violating safety regulations that caused the miners’ deaths. It is considered the worst mining disaster since the 1970 Finley Coal mine accident which killed 38 miners.

Another illustration of the costs of ignoring safety regulations is the Deepwater Horizon oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010. The explosion was attributed to the misguided use of seawater in place of drilling fluid. This allowed dangerous amounts of methane to escape up the pipe and into the rig, which subsequently exploded. The explosion killed 11 rig workers, and affected thousands of lives as oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico for 87 days, ruining the coastline and their livelihoods. Investigations are still ongoing, and oil rig owner BP is facing a cost running into billions of dollars in fines, criminal charges, civil lawsuits and clean up efforts.

Five months later, a massive explosion of a natural gas pipeline owned by Pacific Gas & Electric running through San Bruno, California claimed the lives of 8 residents. It was a mechanical explosion that was greatly exacerbated by the ignition of the escaping natural gas, setting fire to the surrounding area. The initial explosion and fire destroyed 38 houses. The explosion was so great that at first people thought it was an earthquake. It was later determined that the explosion was caused when the pressure in the pipeline exceeded the capacity of the 30-inch transmission line to contain, and it was possible that the pipeline not installed correctly.

Each of these massive disasters can be traced to the failure of big companies to comply with safety regulations in efforts to cut costs. In the end, these companies paid out more than they would have if they had installed safety protocols as mandated by regulatory authorities. According to Williams Kherker, being involved in an explosion may increase the difficulty of an individual trying to find employment. However, that is nothing compared to the lost lives, pain and suffering, and ruined livelihoods.

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The Ponzi Scheme and Your Litigation Options

The term “Ponzi scheme” may sound familiar to most people, but (hopefully) have no first-hand experience of what it is. If you are unfortunately all too familiar with it, you may want to consult with an investment fraud lawyer immediately to recover at least part of your investment.

What is a Ponzi scheme?

This type of investment fraud was named after Charles Ponzi, who got people to invest money in his arbitrage operations which he later established under the company name Securities Exchange Company. His initial intention was to legitimately capitalize on the purchase price difference of international reply coupons and US postage stamps, but ran into difficulties. Unfazed, he thought to make good on his promise to pay dividends to previous investors and to line his pockets by bringing in more investors. He managed this by promising investors huge returns (100% over 90 days) on their investments, and delivering them. Most of who received dividends reinvested the money, which helped keep the ball rolling. Ponzi made no effort to use the investors’ money to generate a profit; instead he lived in luxury. He was so successful that he drew the attention of financial experts, who started to ask hard questions that eventually brought the house of cards down. Nevertheless, Ponzi was able to rake in the equivalent of $225 million today before he was caught.

Recognizing the signs

A good rule of thumb in investing (and life in general) is that if it sounds too good to be true, it is. Get rich quick schemes share one thing in common: the returns are always huge. This is especially true of Ponzi and similar schemes, which essentially depends on the general ignorance of the fledgling investor to be successful.

It is not always easy to spot a Ponzi scheme, and indeed many start out as legitimate operations. One sign that a legitimate business has taken a wrong turn is when the promoter starts offering investor even higher returns if they minimize withdrawals. This usually means the firm is not liquid. That is the time to cash in and get out. However, be prepared to give back whatever profits you received; it may fall under the clawback provision in securities law if the promoter gets sued.

If you or someone you know has lost money through Ponzi schemes, it may be possible to recover part of your investment through litigation. There are several avenues open for pursuit, depending on the amount of loss, the available records, and the expertise of the lawyer you retain. Always engage an attorney familiar with both state and federal law when it comes to Ponzi scheme litigation.

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What is a Coal Dust Explosion?

It may seem weird at first to think of dust exploding, but with a little more thought it makes perfect sense. After all, coal dust is actually powdered coal, which is a highly combustible material. Even when coal dust is a by-product rather than an end product (such as in energy generation in thermal power plants), the suspension of millions of coal particles are just like little bombs just waiting for the right spark to set off an explosion with assuredly fatal synchronicity.

Coal dust can be a by-product of transportation, mining operations, or the active ingredient in energy production. Because coal is brittle, it easily breaks to produce dust which may hang suspended in the air. Aside from the health hazards of breathing in these dust particles on a regular basis (black lung disease), coal dust is much more apt to explode than a whole piece of coal because of the multiplicity of surface area. Imagine each dust particle as a miniature lump of coal. Now multiply that by millions, and you get an idea of the potential for disaster.

Coal dust explosions have been featured in more than one industrial incident that had claimed multiple lives. The worst coal dust explosion to date in terms of fatalities was the 1942 Benxihu Colliery disaster in China, which killed 1,549 mine workers. But mine workers are not the only ones at risk. Those who work in thermal power plants (and the people who live nearby) are also risking their lives every time they start up the powdered coal mill, which pulverizes coal and sends coal dust into the air.

The risk of a coal dust explosion has been addressed in the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) by imposing regulations on the silica content of coal dust as well as safety procedures such as closely monitoring the concentration of coal dust in the air. In the 2010 Upper Big Branch Mine coal dust explosion in West Virginia, mineworkers had reported excessive coal dust in the work areas as early as a week before the explosion. Twenty-nine mine workers were killed. Moreover, the explosion spread over a radius of two miles.

If you or someone you know sustained an injury due to a coal dust explosion, you have the right to seek an explosion lawsuit. A coal dust explosion can be the result of someone else’s negligence. For example, failure to properly maintain and store combustible material can lead to an accident. In that case, the innocent party may be entitled to financial compensation.

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